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The Visual Arts

The arts are basically divided into three different categories: the Visual Arts, the Literary Arts, and the Performing Arts. Of course, there are art forms that combine the different categories—as well as art that is very difficult to categorize at all—but let's stick to the basics!

 

Today we'll focus on just the Visual Arts. The first type of art in this category is architecture, which the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines as "the art or practice of designing and building structures, and especially habitable ones." The professional title of a person who creates architecture is an architect.

 

 

California's central coast is a gorgeous stretch dotted with Spanish architecture.

Captions 2-3, Travel + Leisure: Weekend Getaway, Santa Barbara

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The next type of art in the visual arts is ceramics, defined by Merriam-Webster as "the art or process of making ceramic articles."  Works of art made of ceramic are also called pottery. You call a person who makes ceramics a ceramicist or a studio potter.

 

 

The most popular pieces, I would say, are the ceramic pieces.

Caption 17, New York City: Little Shop of Crafts

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The next type of art in the visual arts category is drawing, which the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines as "the art or technique of representing an object or outlining a figure, plan, or sketch by means of lines". 

 

 

So it's kind of a messy drawing, but it really helps to start to think of ideas.

Caption 27, Creative Space: What does an Interior Designer Do?

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A person who draws might be called a "drawer," but this is usually a person (such as a draftsman) who makes plans and sketches of machinery or structures, or a person who "draws up" or writes legal documents. Most visual artists use drawing as part of their skill set, if not as a finished product, then as a way to sketch out ideas.

 

Now we come to painting, a field practiced by painters, which is probably the traditional art form that most people think of when they think about art. It's simply defined in the dictionary as "the art or occupation of painting."

 

 

When I do an oil painting, it takes me a week or a month.

Captions 15-16, Creative Space: An Artist's Studio

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Next comes photography, practiced by photographers, which has many aspects that are not generally considered "high art," such as photojournalism for the news and commercial photography for advertising. Merriam-Webster defines it as "the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface (such as film or an optical sensor)."

 

 

This rule applies to film-making, photography...

Caption 2, Filmmaking & Photography: The Rule of Thirds | What Is It?

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The next type of visual art is sculpture, a field practiced by sculptors, and defined by Merriam-Webster as "the action or art of processing (as by carving, modeling, or welding) plastic or hard materials into works of art."

 

 

She prays to be sculpted by the sculptor.

Caption 4, Alessia Cara: Scars To Your Beautiful

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The last form of visual arts is conceptual art, which Merriam Webster defines as "an art form in which the artist's intent is to convey a concept rather than to create an art object." A person who practices this art form is a conceptual artist. In the United Kingdom, conceptual art has come to mean any contemporary art that does not use the traditional skills of painting or sculpture. Since conceptual art may take the form of an installation, or a form that is not easily sold (in the way an object like a painting or sculpture can be sold), most conceptual artists live from art grants and other forms of financial support.

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the videos above relating to art forms and professions. Find a tandem partner in your class and make up some sentences in English using these art words, then compare what you both came up with.

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Cuándo usar good y cuándo usar well. Parte 2.

 

Este tema es lo que llaman algunos un prescriptivist bugbear, o sea, una pesadilla prescriptivista. Un prescriptivista según el diccionario de Cambridge es aquel que “cree que hay formas correctas e incorrectas de usar el lenguaje y que los libros sobre el lenguaje deben dar reglas a seguir, en lugar de describir cómo se usa realmente el lenguaje” 

 

Entonces, aun cuando hoy en día palabras como well y good se usan muchas veces como sinónimos, vale la pena dar un repaso a la regla que exige diferenciarlos, ya que la misma se cumple con varios verbos importantes. 

 

Para los linking verbs (en español, verbos copulativos) tales como to be (ser o estar), to feel (sentir/sentirse), to grow (crecer), to look (parecer, lucir) y algunos otros, dice la regla que no debemos utilizar adverbios (como well) para modificarlos. En cambio, debemos utilizar adjetivos (como good) que siempre describen lo que sucede a las personas, y vale repetir, las personas son sustantivos los cuales funcionan con adjetivos. 

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En el caso del verbo to be, éste indica un estado del ser, en pocas palabras, no es un verbo de acción. Entonces, se debería decir  I am good (estoy bien) y no I am well, o  I feel happy (me siento feliz) y no I feel well.

 

How are you doing? -I'm good, how are you?

¿Cómo está? -Estoy bien, ¿y usted?

Subtítulo  83, The Late Late Show with James Corden Audience Attempts To Answer Simple Trivia For Cash - Part 1

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Responder al saludo general: How are you doing? con I'm well es gramaticalmente incorrecto (se quiso decir I'm doing well) o se está respondiendo a una pregunta diferente: how are you doing? I'm concerned about your health (¿Cómo te va? Me preocupa tu salud). 

 

Love you all and um... hope you're doing well.

Los amo a todos y eh... espero que estén bien

Subtítulo 79, An apartment in Japan

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También existe una situación especial, concretamente al hablar de la salud, en la que well y good tienen matices diferentes, pero ambos pueden utilizarse como adjetivos. I am well  (estoy sano) o I am good (puede significar sano, y también "no malo", hábil en algo, etc.)

 

Al final, es un ejemplo de cómo un uso gramatical impropio ha encontrado amplia difusión entre los hablantes nativos. Los idiomas son dinámicos y van cambiando con el tiempo, pero siempre vale la pena conocer la regla.

 

 

Aprendizaje adicional 

 

Entender la diferencia entre los adverbios y los adjetivos cuando se utilizan con verbos copulativos es útil para las personas que aprenden inglés porque ayuda a expresarse con mayor precisión. Haz una lista de adverbios y adjetivos en inglés y combinalos con verbos copulativos. 

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Fall, Autumn, and Indian Summer

The weather where you live may be different, but with cooler temperatures and rains, summer is already showing signs of being over. Summer officially ends on August 31st, so let's talk today about the season that comes after summer. 

 

The most common American English name for the season after summer is fall. The word possibly came from Old English or Old Norse into British English. By the 20th century, it had fallen into disuse in Britain. 

 

The fall is my favorite season in New York.

Caption 10, Caralie and Annie: Get to Know Each Other

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Spring is long gone, and summer's over, and we're ready for fall.

Captions 36-37, Food Talk with Sigrid: Simple Summer Vegetables

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Third, we have fall, or you could say autumn, when the leaves turn golden.

Captions 21-22, Lydia Explains: Weekdays, Seasons and Months

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The other English word for this season, as you can see in the last caption above, is autumn. This is the standard British English word for the season. It's also common in American English, though a bit more formal than "fall."

 

The Changing of the Guard happens throughout autumn and winter,

Caption 27, In London with Lauren: Buckingham Palace

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It's the end of October, so we are in the middle of autumn.

Captions 4-5, Sigrid: Pumpkin Season

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Meanwhile, autumn has painted its colors on the Alps.

Caption 21, The Last Paradises: Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The last caption does not mean that the season is literally taking up a brush to paint. It's metaphorically describing how in autumn, the green leaves of the trees change color to orange and gold!

 

Some years we get lucky and have a few weeks in fall (or autumn) when it's warm and sunny. This is commonly called Indian summer in English. Nobody knows where this phrase really came from, but other languages also have a name for this phenomenon. In many European languages, it is called "old woman's summer," and in some South American countries, it is called "little summer."

 

You're like an Indian summer in the middle of winter

Caption 27, Katy Perry - Thinking Of You: Behind The Scenes

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the Lydia Explains video to learn more about seasons. You can also find more videos by searching for "autumn" and "fall."

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Cuándo usar good y cuándo usar well. Parte 1.

Para un hablante nativo del inglés, la elección entre estas dos palabras debería ser automática y guiada por el instinto, aunque no es raro escuchar que tanto ingleses como americanos se pueden confundir.

 

Por su parte, para un estudiante de inglés de habla hispana, podría resultar útil pensar brevemente la función que desempeñan las palabras good y well en la frase. Ambas tienen el significado español de “bien” o “bueno” según el caso.


Aclaremos esto con unos ejemplos.

 

Cuando necesitamos un adverbio, es decir, una palabra que modifique al verbo, usamos well

 

Make sure you mix all the ingredients well.

Asegúrate de mezclar bien todos los ingredientes.

Subtítulo 18, Michele from Down Under Banana Bread - Part 2

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En este caso no se trata solo de mix (mezclar), sino de mix well (mezclar bien), lo cual es una  indicación del tipo de acción que se necesita; de cómo se debe ejecutar dicha acción. 

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Cuando se trata de un adjetivo, se utiliza good. Básicamente, es adecuado para describir a alguien o algo; para definir un nombre, sustantivo o pronombre con una característica positiva,

 

This is a good thing and keeps the Earth warm enough for life to exist.

Esto es algo bueno y mantiene a la Tierra lo suficientemente tibia para que exista la vida.

Subtítulo 88, Chemistry for All | FuseSchool What Is The Natural Greenhouse Effect?

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Esta diferencia se hace evidente en otras frases. En inglés se dice que una hamburguesa está good y no well. Y solo se puede cantar well, no good

 

 

That's a good burger!

¡Esa es una buena hamburguesa!

Subtítulo 20, Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives Burger Bar - Part 1

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Aprendizaje adicional

 

Aunque hoy en día, good y well son igualmente aceptables e intercambiables en el habla cotidiana, en los ambientes académicos y laborales tienden a ser más exigentes con la preservación de esas reglas. Busca en Yabla videos en los que aparezcan estas palabras y trata de identificar qué función están cumpliendo en cada or

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Summer Sports and Gerunds

There are a lot of sports that are best enjoyed under a summer sun. Many names of sports are gerunds, which means the noun came from the verb, usually ending in "-ing." So you have the sport "surfing," and to make a verb for it to describe participating in the sport, you add the word "go": you "go surfing."
 

 

With some sports, the noun does not end in "ing," such as the sport golf. In this case, you can "play golf" or "go golfing." With some sports, such as tennis, you can "play tennis." But it's incorrect to say you "go tennising."

 

Let's take a look at summer sports today and figure out afterwards which of those have noun gerunds, and whether the noun gerunds carry over into the related verb or not.

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When you throw a frisbee, part of your spirit flies with it.

Caption 6, Movie Trailers: The Invisible String

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I found myself traveling around the world windsurfing.

Caption 12, Justin James: Booking Submission Video

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I'm not a scuba diving instructor yet.

Caption 1, Job interviews: Mr. Alan Hint monologue

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Caveman Skatetech delivers a very armchair appreciation to the sport of skateboarding.

Captions 1-3, Caveman Skatetech: Desert Vol 1

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It is also a popular recreational area for boating and other water sports.

Caption 36, The Last Paradises: America's National Parks

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If I'm in a kayak or a canoe, I have to be careful because if I move too much, then I can tip over.

Captions 53-55, Sigrid explains: The Tipping Point

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This effect is very important in sports like tennis, soccer, and golf.

Caption 30, Science: Surprising Applications of the Magnus Effect

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Sport name           Non-gerund verb        Gerund verb
Boating                   (none)                          Go boating, canoeing, kayaking
Diving                     (none)                          Go diving, scuba diving
Fishing                    (none)                         Go fishing
Frisbee                    Play frisbee                 (none)
Golf                         Play golf                      Go golfing
Skateboarding        (none)                          Go skateboarding
Snorkeling              (none)                          Go snorkeling
Surfing                    (none)                          Go surfing, windsurfing, kitesurfings
Soccer                    Play soccer                  (none)
Tennis                     Play tennis                   (none)

 

Note too that with some sports, you can use a non-gerund verb to describe playing the sport: "I golf badly, I dive well, I fish very well, I skateboard like a pro, I can snorkel, and I can surf." But other sports require you to have a helping verb: "I play frisbee, soccer, and tennis." 

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch some of the videos above for more references to summer sports.

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To borrow y to lend: prestar

El verbo español prestar equivale a los verbos ingleses to lend to borrow.

Tienes que pensar que "lend" es sinónimo de 'dar prestado', y que 'borrow' es sinónimo de 'tomar prestado'.

 

En inglés, el verbo to borrow significa tomar o utilizar algo que pertenece a otra persona durante un corto periodo de tiempo. El verbo to lend es dar algo a una persona durante un corto periodo de tiempo. Los hablantes de español suelen confundir estas dos palabras

 

En el siguiente ejemplo, Valentino presta la ropa y Sharon Stone la toma prestada. Al final, ella tiene que devolverlos.

 

So Valentino, the designer, lends me clothes to wear for appearances.

Así que Valentino, el diseñador, me presta ropa para usarla para [mis] apariciones.

Subtítulo 64, Ask Jimmy Carter Another interview with Sharon Stone

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La frase  lend a hand  (dar una mano) significa ayudar.

 

I would not lend a hand

Yo no daría una mano

Subtítulo 5, Phil Collins In The Air Tonight

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En la siguiente frase, Richard Wiseman le dice que utilice el dinero de su amigo para gastarle una broma.

 

Borrow a note from a friend. Ask them to place their hands palm down

Pida prestado un billete a un amigo. Pídales que pongan su mano con la palma hacia abajo

Subtítulo 49, Richard Wiseman 10 Bets You Will Always Win

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Así que ahora ya sabes que decir  "Peter  borrowed me ten dollars"  no es correcto. Tienes que decir o bien " Peter lent me ten dollars"  o  "I borrowed ten dollars from Peter." Nuestra Annette O´Neil del equipo de Yabla ha producido este video sobre los verbos to borrow y to lend. Te invitamos a verlo: English with Annette O'Neil - Formally and Informally Asking for Help - Part 1 of 3

 

Aprendizaje adicional

 

Los verbos to borrow y pedir to lend forman parte de las palabras que no podemos traducir literalmente en español. Presta atención los videos de  Yabla inglés en los cuales aparezcan estas palabras y elabora con ellas oraciones cotidianas que se te ocurran. 

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Flowers in Springtime

Spring and summer are the times of year that most flowers bloom in the Western Hemisphere. Let's take a look today at some of the more common types of flowers you'll come across in English. 

 

This incredible variety of shades of purple lupines are springing up everywhere.

Captions 25-26, New Zealand: 100% Pure New Zealand, Home of Middle-earth

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The Lupine (often spelled "Lupin" in British English), with its beautiful purple flowers, has become a problem in New Zealand, because it is not a native plant and has spread rapidly throughout the country.

 

If you come in June, you can see the roses.

Caption 11, Jessica: Brooklyn Sites

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The rose has been linked since ancient times to love, so it's the standard flower for people in love to give each other as a present.

 

This brief, rich time is crowned by the blooming of the alpine rose.

Caption 10, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The alpine rose is a kind of rose that is found in the mountains of central and southern Europe.

 

Anticipating the second her ears would open like lotuses...

Caption 15, White House Poetry Jam: Joshua Bennett

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The lotus flower is usually pink in Asia, and yellow in North America. It is considered a sacred plant in some eastern religions like Hinduism and Buddhism.

 

And who can believe that a kind of rhododendron is growing in the Alps as well?

Caption 12, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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There are over a thousand kinds of rhododendrons. It's the national flower of Nepal.

 

There are Easter lilies and other flowers everywhere.

Caption 67, Holidays and Seasons with Sigrid: Easter

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The Easter lily is found most often in Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. In Ireland, a badge shaped like an Easter lily is worn during the Easter holidays in remembrance of people who died fighting for Irish independence.

 

Beside the red carpets shines the deep blue gentian.

Caption 13, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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There are many different kinds of gentian, which usually have blue flowers. Some kinds are used medicinally or as a food or drink flavoring. 

 

Dream if you can a courtyard, an ocean of violets in bloom.

Captions 4-5, Prince. When Doves Cry

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Violets are often—but not always—a shade of purple that is also called violet, but there are also blue varieties. People sometimes invent rhymes that start with the line "Roses are red, violets are blue..." 

 

As did the queen of the Alps, the edelweiss.

Caption 18, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The edelweiss is usually found in the mountains of Europe. 

 

So much for them daisy chains.

Caption 37, Diane Birch: Valentino

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"Daisy" is a common name for several different kinds of flowers, which if strung together in a garland, are called "daisy chains." But the term "daisy chain" is also used as a technical term for connecting things, such as computers, ropes for climbing, and even a kind of fishing lure!

 

Further Learning
Find out more about different kinds of flowers on English Wikipedia or Simple English Wikipedia. You can start by looking up some flowers from this list: daffodil, dahlia, hibiscus, jasmine, marigold, morning glory, pansy, petunia, tulip, sunflower, and lavender.

You can also go to Yabla English and find more videos that use the word "flower" or "flowers" to see the different ways it is used by native English speakers. 

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All about "run"

Let's take a look today at different idioms, or slang expressions, that are based on the verb "to run" and its noun version, "run." The primary meaning of "to run" is, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, "to go faster than a walk; specifically, to go steadily by springing steps so that both feet leave the ground for an instant in each step." But there are a lot of other uses for this handy word whose meanings are meant as a figure of speech.

 

It's no secret that the both of us are running out of time

Caption 30, Adele Hello

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It just was a movie that didn't end with all the pizzazz that it should have because they ran out of money by the end.

Captions 70-71,  Ask Jimmy Carter: Interview with Robin Williams

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To "run out" of something means that you will soon have no more of something left. The phrase "to run out of gas" literally means that your car will soon have no more gas. But it is also a figure of speech meaning that you are getting tired and have very little energy left. "I wanted to finish my homework, but I ran out of gas."

 

In the long run, there's still time to change the road you're on.

Captions 1-2, Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven

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The phrase "in the long run" means over a long period of time, or eventually.

 

Yeah, she'd stay there till her blood ran cold.

Caption 22, Krayolas: La Conquistadora

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The saying "blood runs cold" means that somebody gets very frightened and fears for the worst.

 

And wonder runs in the family.

Caption 14, Selena Gomez: Ramona And Beezus

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If something "runs in the family," it suggests that some kind of illness is inherited in a family or some kind of behavior is seen in a family, as if it were inherited. 

 

I was running late and I decided in order to make up the time, that I was gonna speed my car.

Caption 30, Drivers Wanted: Pizza Delivery

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To be "running late" does not necessarily mean that you are literally running—although people do often run when they are late—but simply that you are late for something like an appointment. 

 

Further Learning
See if you can guess the meaning of the following figures of speech using "run." The answers are at the very bottom of the page, so you can check them afterwards.

 

A. to get off to a running start
B. to make a run for it
C. to run a fever or temperature
D. to run a tight ship
E. to run around in circles
F. to run into a stone wall
G. to run someone ragged

 

You can also go to Yabla English and find more videos that use run, running, ran etc. to see the different phrases used by native English speakers. 

 

 

 

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A. to start something, such a project, very quickly and efficiently
B. to escape something, whether literally by running or any other means
C. to have a fever or a high temperature
D. to supervise very effectively and efficiently
E. to be inefficient, wasting time
F. to be stopped from making progress
G. to exhaust somebody by giving them too many tasks

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Voz activa y voz pasiva

En la gramática inglesa, la "voz" describe la relación entre el verbo y el sujeto que habla. Si el sujeto de la frase realiza la acción, el verbo está en voz activa. Si el sujeto no participa activamente en la acción descrita y la atención se centra en la propia acción, no en el sujeto, el verbo está en voz pasiva.

 

Es importante que cuando escribas en inglés distingas entre la voz activa y la pasiva. Si quieres que el foco de atención esté en el sujeto, el o los que ejecutan la acción, utiliza la voz activa. Si quieres que el énfasis esté en la acción en sí, y no en quien hace la acción, utiliza la voz pasiva.

 

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Aquí tienes dos ejemplos de la voz activa tomados de Yabla Inglés: 

 

He created the mythology. He actually said in some of the letters he wrote...

Él creó la mitología. Él de hecho dijo en algunas de las cartas que escribió...

Subtítulo 54, New Zealand 100% Pure 'The Hobbit' cast talks about New Zealand

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Now, we'll have a demonstration from some of your instructors.

Ahora, tendremos una demostración de algunos de sus instructores.

Subtítulo 15, Karate Kids, USA The Little Dragons - Part 16

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En el primer ejemplo, la atención se centra en que el sujeto he  ha creado la mitología. Suele ser fácil hacer una frase en voz pasiva a partir de la activa utilizando el verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo original. En este caso, podemos escribirlo en voz pasiva así:

 

The mythology was created by him. 

La mitología fue creada por él. 

El enfoque aquí no es el hecho de que él la creó, sino el hecho de que fue creada. 

 

En el segundo ejemplo, podemos ponerlo en pasiva así: 

 

Now, there'll be a demonstration for us from some of your instructors. 

Ahora, habrá una demostración para nosotros de algunos de sus instructores. 

Ya no se enfatiza we  como los que serán el público de la demostración, sino que el hecho de la demostración es lo más importante.

 

Más información

Lee más sobre la voz activa y la voz pasiva aquí y encuentra ejemplos en Yabla Inglés para verlas utilizadas en un contexto real.

 

 

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Números cardinales y ordinales

En inglés, los números cardinales (por ejemplo, one, two o three) se refieren a la cantidad, mientras que los números ordinales (first, second or third) se refieren a la distribución.  Los números ordinales se utilizan en fechas y fracciones. Se emplean como adjetivos para describir la importancia, la posición en una lista y la ubicación en el tiempo.

 

Generalmente, los números ordinales se crean añadiendo -th al final del número cardinal. Sin embargo, hay excepciones para los números first (primero), second (segundo), third (tercero), fifth (quinto), eighth (octavo), ninth (noveno) y twelfth (décimo segundo). 

 

I've been nervous. I think you know it's my first video ever.

Me he puesto nervioso. Creo que sabes que es mi primer vídeo.

Subtítulo 31, Adele The Making of "Chasing Pavements"

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It is the world's sixth largest country by total area.

Es el sexto país más grande del mundo por superficie total.

Subtítulo 3, Soccer World Cup Australia

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On the twelfth day after Christmas, we have to take down all the decorations and the tree.

El decimosegundo día después de Navidad hay que quitar todos los adornos y el árbol.

Subtítulo 47, Christmas Traditions in the UK

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A partir del veinte, los números ordinales de los múltiplos de diez, por ejemplo: thirty o ninety, se crean sustituyendo la y por la ieth.

 

And we've got the one year celebration on the thirtieth of May.

Y tenemos la celebración de un año el treinta de mayo.

Subtítulo 30, FIFA U-20 World Cup New Zealand 2015 New Zealand getting the word out

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Esto puede parecer mucho para recordar. Sin embargo, en otros números superiores a veinte, sólo se escribe la última cifra como número ordinal:

 

English is the language of the twenty-first century. 

El inglés es el idioma del siglo ventiuno

Subtítulo 8, Strothoff International School Imagefilm

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Aprendizaje adicional

En español también tenemos números ordinales y cardinales con reglas muy similares. Es una ventaja, ¿No?. Entonces, ahora puedes memorizar con la ayuda de esta extensa lista de números y encuentra más ejemplos en Yabla Inglés.

 

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Nationalities, Part II

In Part II, we are going to continue to talk about the names of some major countries, the main languages they speak, and the adjectives used to describe somebody from that country. Usually, the noun for the language spoken is the same as the adjective for somebody who resides there. For instance, in France, the French speak French. But there are also exceptions: In the United States, most Americans speak English. Note too that in English, unlike many other languages, even the adjectives are usually written with a capital letter.

 

Let's start off with two countries whose nationalities end with -ian or -ean:

 

Off the coast of Queensland, Australia, it is one of the richest ecosystems on the planet.

Caption 3, Greenpeace Australia Pacific: Eyes On The Reef

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One third of mammal species lost in the world are Australian.

Captions 56-57, BBC Planet Wild: Alien Animals

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And what about North Korea?

Caption 41, Jimmy Kimmel: Kids Answer "What is the Best Country in the World?"

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I know a little Korean. Let's try it.

Caption 10, Hemispheres: The Amazing Cell Phone

 Play Caption

 

 

And next some countries whose nationalities end with -ese:

 

You do know that in China it's not going to be a problem.

Caption 23, ABC Science Online: An interview with Douglas Adams

 Play Caption

 

 

There's a large Chinese population in London.

Caption 8, London: Multicultural Britain

 Play Caption

 

You came with a friend from Portugal to the United States?

Caption 13, Groucho Marx: You Bet Your Life

 Play Caption

 

 

While speakers of Spanish and Portuguese can often understand each other.

Caption 55, TED-Ed: How languages evolve

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The Netherlands presents a special case: 

 

He has been told he has a long lost cousin in the Netherlands.

Caption 7, Naish Kiteboarding TV The Real Stig

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The Dutch came sharing coleslaw and cookies.

Caption 8, The History of English: American English

 Play Caption

 

 

So while the Netherlands (usually with the definite article "the") is the proper name of the country, it is still often called Holland—although strictly speaking, Holland is only a region of the Netherlands. There is also the term "Netherlandish," but this does not usually refer to the language. It's an art history term used to refer to the northern part of the Low Countries in the 16th and 17th centuries.

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and find more videos that use some of the following country names, dominant languages, and nationalities. You can also see a more complete list of countries, their people, and their languages here.

 

Country               Language          Nationality
Australia               English               Australian
Brazil                    Portuguese        Brazilian
Chile                     Spanish             Chilean
China                    Chinese             Chinese
Egypt                     Arabic                Egyptian
Hungary                Hungarian           Hungarian
Italy                       Italian                  Italian
Japan                   Japanese             Japanese
Korea                    Korean                 Korean
(the) Netherlands  Dutch                   Dutch
Portugal                 Portuguese         Portuguese
Russia                   Russian               Russian
United States        English                 American

 

Thanks to you all for reading this, keep up the good work! If you have any good ideas for lesson topics, please email them to us at newsletter@yabla.com, and you can tweet us @yabla.

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Adverbios de frecuencia

Existe un conjunto estándar de adverbios (palabras que modifican los verbos) los cuales describen la frecuencia con la que ocurre algo, éstos van desde never (nunca) hasta always (siempre).

Veamos algunos ejemplos

 

 

I've never done that in my life. Do you think Goldstein's Brotherhood really exists?

Nunca lo he hecho en mi vida. ¿Crees que la Hermandad de Goldstein en verdad existe?

Subtítulo 70, George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four BBC TV Movie - Part 13

 Play Caption

 

I very rarely have a day off.

Yo muy pocas veces tengo un día libre. 

Subtítulo11, Ask Jimmy Carter Another interview with Sharon Stone

 Play Caption

 

Do you have someone who can, kind o'... lower the air, take the air out of your tires occasionally?

¿Tienes alguien que pueda, como... bajarte el aire, sacarte el aire de los neumáticos de vez en cuando?

Subtítulos 40-41, Will Smith Enemy of the State - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

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Well, when I write songs, I sometimes will write it on a piano

Bueno, cuando escribo canciones, a veces la escribo en un piano

Subtítulo 27, Bee and Flower Interview

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Whales feed at depth in waters that are often pitch dark.

Las ballenas se alimentan a profundidad en aguas que a menudo están totalmente oscuras,

Subtítulo 19, Sustainable Human How Whales Change Climate

 Play Caption

 

OK, I usually leave it to simmer a little bit. -OK.

Bueno, yo generalmente lo dejo a fuego lento un poco. -Muy bien.

Subtítulo 85, Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives Pam's Trinidadian Caribbean Kitchen - Part 2

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It is always held in Leicester Square.

Siempre se lleva a cabo en Leicester Square.

Subtítulo 25, In London with Lauren Piccadilly Circus

 Play Caption

 

Los adverbios están escritos en negrita arriba en orden creciente de frecuencia: nunca, rara vez, ocasionalmente, a veces, a menudo, normalmente o casi siempre, siempre.

 

Aprendizaje adicional 

Busque ejemplos de adverbios de frecuencia en inglés de Yabla Inglés para verlos usados en un contexto real. 

 

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El gerundio en inglés

Un gerundio es un sustantivo que se ha formado añadiendo el sufijo -ing a un verbo. El gerundio funcionará a menudo como un verbo dentro de la oración, pero en el contexto de la frase completa puede formar un sujeto. Los verbos progressive active participle (participio activo progresivo) también terminan en -ing, pero conservan la forma verbal. Aprendamos a diferenciar entre un gerundio (sustantivo) y un progressive active participle  (verbo).

 

But believing ends in seeing

Pero el creer termina en el ver

Subtítulo 44, Katie Melua A Happy Place

 Play Caption

 

You will be seeing them again.

Tú los verás de nuevo

Subtítulo 37 George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four BBC TV Movie - Part 16

 Play Caption

 

 

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En el primer ejemplo, "ver" y "creer" son sustantivos de gerundio. Intenta colocar el artículo definido "the" antes de las palabras y observa si la frase aún tiene sentido: But the believing ends in the seeing. (Pero el creer termina en el ver). El hecho de que funcione gramaticalmente muestra que tanto seeing como believing" son gerundios. Pero en el segundo ejemplo, You will be the seeing them again sería gramaticalmente incorrecto, porque en este caso seeing funciona como verbo (to see).

 

I'd like your opinion about fast driving on the highway.

Me gustaría tu opinión sobre correr velozmente en la carrera

Subtítulo 21, James Dean Interview & Famous Drive Safely Spot

 Play Caption

 

 

I'm in a truck, we're driving through the bush.

Estoy en un camión, estamos conduciendo a través de los...de los matorrales.

Subtítulo 23, Kiting For Conservation Kenya - Part 1

 Play Caption

       

En el primer ejemplo,   the fast driving" (conducir rápido) funciona, por lo que es un sustantivo de gerundio. En el segundo ejemplo, si agregamos el articulo:  we're the driving... no funciona gramaticalmente, así que es un verbo.

 

Aprendizaje adicional

Intenta tomar ejemplos de algunos verbos en inglés y añade -ing -al final de ellos para hacer sustantivos de gerundio, luego busca ejemplos en inglés de  Yabla Inglés para observar cómo son usados en un contexto real. 

 

 

 
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Nationalities, Part I

In today's lesson, we are going to talk about the names of some major countries, the main languages they speak, and the adjectives used to describe somebody from that country. Usually the noun for the language spoken is the same as the adjective for somebody from that country. For instance in France, the French speak French. But there are also exceptions: In the United States, most Americans speak English. Note too that in English, unlike many other languages, even the adjectives are usually written with a capital letter!

 

Let's start off with two countries whose names have only one syllable

 

And where would I like to go? That's easy: France.

Caption 8, Parts of Speech: Question Words

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People speak French in France, and as noted above, the adjective for something from France is also "French." One of the few national adjectives in English that is not standardly written with a capital letter is in the term "french fries." This is what is called a "misnomer" or mistaken name, because so-called french fries probably came from Belgium or Netherlands! 

 

He was throwing french fries at you?

Caption 38, 7-10 Split: Short Film

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And on to the Greeks in Greece, who speak Greek: 

 

.

...especially those who were considering going to Greece.

Caption 15, Job interviews: Mr. Alan Hint monologue

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"K" is a very old letter. It comes from the Greek letter "kappa."

Caption 12, The Alphabet: the Letter K

 Play Caption

 

 

There are a lot of countries whose languages and nationalities end in the letters -ish. Note that the adjective for somebody from Britain is "British," but they usually speak "English" in the form of "British English":

 

The day after Christmas is called Boxing Day in Britain.

Caption 38, Christmas traditions: in the UK

 Play Caption

 

We also drop the letter "r" at the end of words in British English.

Caption 29, British vs American: English Pronunciation Lesson

 Play Caption

 

 

And on to Spain, where the Spanish speak Spanish: 

 

I should speak in Spanish because Custo Barcelona is a Spanish designer.

Caption 13, New York Fashion Week: Miss Universe, Miss USA and Miss Teen USA take over

 Play Caption

 

 

Here I am in Southern Spain in the height of summer

Caption 2, Tara's recipes: Delicious Fruit Salad with Greek Yoghurt

 Play Caption

 

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and find more videos that use some of the following country names, languages, and nationalities. You can also see a more complete list of countries, their people, and their languages here.

 

Country          Language          Nationality
France             French                French
Greece            Greek                  Greek
Britain              English                British
Denmark          Danish                Danish
Finland             Finnish                Finnish
Poland              Polish                  Polish
Spain                Spanish              Spanish
Sweden            Swedish              Swedish
Turkey               Turkish               Turkish

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Conjunctions of Time Part II

A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or sentences. The easiest conjunctions to remember are "and" and "or." But there are conjunctions that do more than just connect—they give meaning to a sentence by expressing the time that something is happening: conjunctions of time.

 

You can easily tell if a conjunction of time is being used in a sentence because the sentence will tell you when something happens or for how long something is occurring. If you can make a "when" or "for how long" question from the sentence, and that question can be answered by the other half of the sentence, then you know that the sentence is using a conjunction of time.

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In Part I, we learned about when, before, after, while, as, by the time, until, and till. Let's continue today with the remaining conjunctions of time.

 

Since

 

There have been ravens here since the reign of Charles the Second,

Caption 9, The London Story Tower of London

 Play Caption

 

 

And I've been doing that since I was ten years old.

Caption 6, Ashley Tisdale Thanksgiving Traditions

 Play Caption

 

 

Be careful not to confuse the conjunction of time "since" with the preposition "since," which means "because."

 

As soon as

 

As soon as your baby is born, you will give it to me.

Caption 41, Fairy Tales Rapunzel 

 Play Caption

 

 

As soon as we showed up, the bears raced off into the forest.

Caption 8, Alaska Revealed Tidal bores, icebergs and avalanches

 Play Caption

 

 

Whenever

 

You should try to ignore cyberbullying whenever possible.

Caption 4, Bob Parsons Cyberbullies

 Play Caption

 

 

You can listen to Radio One whenever you want.

Caption 56, Hozier Someone New

 Play Caption

 

 

The first (second, third etc.) time

 

The first time was a very good experience and the second time is also a very good experience.

Captions 5-6, The Olympics Teresa Gabriele (Canada)

 Play Caption

 

 

That was the third time we were in the studio.

Caption 22, MTV News Selena Gomez Decodes Her Instagram Pics

 Play Caption

 

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and find other sentences (not questions) that contain the conjunctions of time "since," "as soon as," "whenever," and "the first time"—or any time you care to choose! Write these sentences down and practice making questions and answers from the sentences like we did above.

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Conjunctions of Time Part I

A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or sentences. The easiest conjunctions to remember are "and" and "or." But there are conjunctions that do more than just connect—they give meaning to a sentence by expressing the time that something is happening: conjunctions of time.

 

You can easily tell if a conjunction of time is being used in a sentence because the sentence will tell you when something happens or for how long something is occurring. If you can make a "when" or "for how long" question from the sentence, and that question can be answered by the other half of the sentence, then you know that the sentence is using a conjunction of time.

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

When

 

When I flew in on the float plane, they were all there on the boat.

Caption 4, Alaska Revealed: Endless Wave

 Play Caption

 

Q: When were they all there on the boat? A: When I flew in on the float plane.

 

Before

 

Be sure to put your mask on before helping them.

Caption 18, Air New Zealand: An Unexpected Briefing

 Play Caption

 

Q: When should I be sure to put my mask on? A: Before I help them.

 

After

 

They have to defend their breed from predators for up to four weeks after they're born.

Captions 49-50, Evolution: Deep Ocean

 Play Caption

 

Q: When do they have to defend their breed? A: After they are born.

 

While

 

We have to tread lightly while filming.

Caption 40, Nature & Wildlife: Search for the Ghost Bear

 Play Caption

 

Q: When do we have to tread lightly? A: While filming.

 

As

 

We paddle along and we pick up trash as we go

Caption 23, Alison's Adventures: Your Passport To the World (LONDON)

 Play Caption

 

Q: When do we pick up trash? A: As we go.

 

By the time

 

By the time I got to New York, I was living like a king

Captions 10-11, David Bowie: Lazarus

 Play Caption

 

Q: When were you living like a king? A: By the time I got to New York.

 

Note that some conjunctions of time are also phrases, not just a single word.

 

Until, till

 

The conjunctions of time "until" and "till" are interchangeable and you may use either word. Many people wrongly think that "till" is just shortened version of "until," but in fact "till" is the older word, in use since the 9th century. The variant "until" has been in use since the 12th century. These two words are unusual in that they express a length of time rather than a point in time, so we should ask the question using "for how long" instead of "when."

 

She sat until she broke the chair.

Caption 28, Story Hour: Goldilocks and the 3 Bears

 Play Caption

 

Q: For how long was she sitting? A: Until she broke the chair.

 

So he sat on a chair, till he died of despair,

Captions 20-21, Sigrid explains: The Limerick

 Play Caption

 

Q: For how long was he sitting? A: Till he died of despair.

 

Further Learning
Don't despair, and by all means stay healthy! Go to Yabla English and find other sentences (not questions) that contain the conjunctions of time "when," "before," "after," "while," "as," "by the time," "until" and "till." Write these sentences down and practice making questions and answers from the sentences like we did above. You can also read more about "until" and "till" on the Merriam-Webster website
.

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Some Common English Idioms, Part III

This is the last part in our three-part Yabla series about sayings in English (called "idioms") that are not always so easy to understand, but that you will often hear native English speakers say. 

 

But I got smarter, I got harder in the nick of time.

Caption 11, Taylor Swift: Look What You Made Me Do

 Play Caption

 

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To do something "in the nick of time" means to do it at the last possible moment. This comes from a 17th century meaning of "nick" that is otherwise no longer used, which means "a critical moment." Thus "in the nick of time" means "at a critical moment in time." 

 

Having a serious deadline like that caused the whole team to really buckle down and get it together.

Captions 43-44, Rumble: The Indians Who Rocked the World

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To "buckle down" means to "start working hard." Its origin is American, where it first appeared in print in the mid-19th century. The idiom "get it together" is probably related to the phrase to "get your act together," which means to get organized so that you can accomplish something effectively. 

 

And I am sick and tired of my phone ringing.

Caption 58, Lady Gaga: Telephone, featuring Beyoncé

 Play Caption

 

 

This doesn't really mean that somebody is either ill or exhausted, but rather that something is annoying or getting on their nerves. It probably originated in North America in the 18th century.

 

You better step your game up on that.

Caption 40, Java: The "Java Life" Rap Music Video

 Play Caption

 

 

To "step up your game" means to improve your skills. This probably started as a phrase used in sports, but is now commonly used for any subject. 

 

You keep your nose out of this.

Caption 36, Dream to Believe: aka Flying

 Play Caption

 

 

The phrase "to stick your nose in somebody's business" means to involve yourself in something that is none of your concern. Thus "to keep your nose out" means to "not get involved" in something. 

 

You wanna just kind of take it easy and rest?

Caption 52, Leonard Nimoy: Talking about Mr. Spock

 Play Caption

 

 

To "take it easy" means "to relax," but if someone "takes something hard" it means that something has had a negative emotional impact on them.

 

Because if they don't get him, we're up that creek without a paddle.

Caption 47, Karate Kids, USA: The Little Dragons

 Play Caption

 

 

As common sense implies, if you are in boat with no way to control it or make it move, you are in trouble. So "up a creek without a paddle" means to be in trouble! 

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and review the three-part Yabla series about English idioms. See if you can make your own sentences using the idioms in different contexts to see if you understand them correctly.

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Some Common English Idioms, Part II

An idiom is basically a phrase that is figurative and used to describe literal situations with words that may not be clear to a non-native speaker. Last month we went through a selection of common idioms, and in this lesson we can go through some more that you may hear when you are speaking English with somebody.

 

So I think to kitesurf all year around, um, as a job and to do it 24/7, you need a break, and I mean, it may not seem like time off!

Captions 19-21, Sam Light: In a Nutshell

 Play Caption

 

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The slang expression "24/7" is best explained in this video: 

 

It's basically 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Caption 22, World's Toughest Job: Official Video

 Play Caption

 

 

What do you want to get off your chest?

Caption 16, Comic-Con 2015: Jennifer Lawrence

 Play Caption

 

 

To "get something off your chest" is to admit something that has been bothering you.

 

Alaska's wide and very isolated mountains ranges are a paradise for these animals, but a nightmare for us, because it's like trying to find a needle in a haystack.

Captions 35-37, Nature & Wildlife: Search for the Ghost Bear

 Play Caption

 

 

A needle is a small, very fine object, and to find it in a haystack, which consists of countless fine pieces of hay, is very difficult indeed—and this phrase thus means that something is very difficult or nearly impossible. 

 

If I was, for instance, being put into a courtroom with lawyers, I am not a lawyer, so therefore, I would feel like a fish out of water.

Captions 14-16, English: common phrases

 Play Caption

 

 

To feel "like a fish out of water" thus means to feel out of place or uncomfortable.

 

Hang in there, guys!

Caption 56, Movie Trailers: Disney's Frozen

 Play Caption

 

 

To "hang in there" means to be patient and to wait for something.

 

But they don't know where they're going in the fast lane.

Captions 16-17, Echosmith: Cool Kids

 Play Caption

 

 

This is often used in the expression "to live life in the fast lane," which means figuratively to live an exciting or stressful lifestyle, which may, depending upon the context, be a good or bad thing. The phrase is often about somebody who is on the verge of losing control of their life. A song by the 1970s pop group the Eagles called "Life in the Fast Lane" states that it will "surely make you lose your mind."  

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the "Common English" videos Part I and Part II to learn more about some English idioms. 

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