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New Year's Resolutions

Happy New Year! A New Year's resolution is a tradition that, according to Wikipedia, is common in the Western World. People make promises to themselves to "continue good practices, change an undesired trait or behavior, accomplish a personal goal, or otherwise improve their life at the start of a new year."

 

It's the first day of 2019.  -We should do New Year's resolutions.

Caption 2, New Year's Resolutions: Lele Pons & Hannah Stocking

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Often friends and family will discuss their resolutions for the upcoming year.

 

My New Year's resolution is to just keep going at the gym.

Caption 7, Ashley Tisdale: Happy New Year!

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This resolution will probably be easier to keep, since she has been going to the gym already and it´s just a matter of continuing to go.

 

Every day, I am gonna do one thing I have never done before. That, my friends, is my New Year's resolution.

Captions 9-11, New Year's Resolutions: Friends

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This, on the other hand, might prove difficult. It may be hard to even think up practical things that you've never done before. Even more likely, you'll just forget your resolution because of regular routines!

 

All right, my New Year's resolution is to learn how to play guitar.

Caption 29, New Year's Resolutions: Friends

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This too may prove to be difficult, since learning to play a musical instrument requires a lot of time and patience.

 

I don't really make any New Year's resolutions anymore because I learned early on that when I did, I never really followed through with the resolution.

Captions 2-4, Ashley Tisdale: Happy New Year!

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According to statistics, most people fail in their resolutions. Apparently, you are more likely to achieve your goal if you take smaller steps towards achieving it, rather than trying to make a large change in one go.

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the "New Year's Resolutions" episode of Friends, it's pretty funny! And if you have made a New Year's resolution (or plan to), be sure you try to accomplish it in small steps rather than all at once— you'll be more likely to attain your goal. Best wishes in the new year from all of us at Yabla!

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El verbo get: el todoterreno evergreen del inglés. Primera parte.

 

Como se lee en el título, el verbo get es una palabra con la que puedes decir lo que quieres en inglés; es un vehículo útil para expresar lo que gustes, muchas veces incluso, de manera más sintética que con otros verbos. Get es uno de los diez verbos más usados en la lengua inglesa con sus decenas de formas y significados, ya sea como verbo simple, como verbo compuesto o como auxiliar. Cada una de estas facetas del verbo get, será detallada por separado en lecciones posteriores. 

 

A modo de introducción, demos un vistazo general.  

 

-En principio, get funciona como un verbo usual. En el habla cotidiana del Reino Unido se le presenta junto al verbo to have pero en forma pasada got

 

I have got  two sisters (Tengo dos hermanas)

 

-Generalmente, se usa en el sentido de obtener, recibir, experimentar algo físico, un fenómeno  corporal  (hambre, frío, fiebre, etc)

 

Get a spoon to add the mashed bananas to the mixture,

Coge una cuchara para añadir el puré de plátanos a la mezcla,

Subtítulo  5, Michele from Down Under Banana Bread - Part 2

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I get the fever when I hear that song

Me da fiebre cuando escucho esa canción

Subtíulo 10, Alexandra Stan & INNA feat. Daddy Yankee We Wanna

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-Otro uso muy común de get es el relacionado con el significado de comprender: 

 

It's my body. Get it? Not me.

Es mi cuerpo. ¿Lo entiendes? No yo.

Caption 14, Prince Ea I Am NOT Black, You are NOT White

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-Puede significar también llegar a un sitio, alcanzar un sitio: 

 

 

Now, get home, dog. Get on home. Go on!

Ahora, ve a casa, perro. Ve a casa. ¡Anda!

Subtítulo 5, Karate Kids, USA The Little Dragons - Part 10

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-Cuando se emplea junto a un adjetivo adquiere como significado volverse, llegar a ser, ponerse.

 

 

Ooh, this could get messy

Oh, esto puede ponerse complicado

Subtítulo 17, Alanis Morissette Hands Clean

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Del mismo modo, get es un multi-words verb (verbo de varias palabras), eso quiere decir que se mezcla con preposiciones, adjetivos y adverbios dando origen a verbos compuestos, por ejemplo: get off, get ready, get started. Los verbos compuestos suelen confundirse con las llamadas colocaciones, las cuales equivalen más a expresiones cotidianas que juntan a un verbo y a otra palabra, es decir, son frases funcionales como por ejemplo, make an effort (hacer un esfuerzo), be right (tener razón), set the table (poner la mesa) y tantas otras. Pero la combinación del verbo get con otra palabra genera un verbo de dos componentes  con otro significado. Un ejemplo más común: si a get le agregamos el adverbio up (arriba) obtenemos el verbo levantarse. 

 

 

it would be far easier just to get up, walk outside of your house,

Sería mucho más fácil levantarse y salir de la casa,

Subtítulo 16, BBC Comedy Greats Michael McIntyre on Google Earth

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Por último, una característica idiomática de get es que también puede  funcionar de manera semejante a un verbo auxiliar. Con get se forman oraciones en voz pasiva, formuladas frecuentemente con el modo imperativo. Para traducirlo al español se pueden emplear los verbos ser, estar, tener y volverse. 

 

 

So don't get discouraged, OK?

Así que no te desanimes, ¿de acuerdo?

Subtítulo 52, Austin Reed Guitar tutorial

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Aprendizaje adicional 

 

Get es un verbo de uso frecuente, así que abundan sus ejemplos en la biblioteca de videos de Yabla inglés. De ahora en adelante, presta atención a los diferentes contextos y situaciones en los que se utiliza el verbo todoterreno get. 

 

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Pop Music Instruments in English

A few lessons ago, we discussed the names of classical music instruments in English. Let's take a look today at the English names of some of the most common musical instruments used in pop music.

 

We already discussed the piano in the classical instruments lesson, but there are also a number of other kinds of keyboard instruments that are used in pop music. As a general term, they are simply called keyboards. A person who plays keyboards is a keyboardist.

 

I spoke with Andrew, who plays keyboards in INXS.

Caption 26, INXS: Pat Monahan about recording Beautiful Girl

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The Hammond organ is a popular vintage organ that is still much-loved in pop and jazz music. Other popular electronic organs from the 1960s, which were produced cheaply by companies such as Farfisa in Italy and Vox in the UK, are often referred to as electronic organs.

 

Scott Ellaway, who is now a successful conductor, loves to come here and play the organ.

Captions 19-20, Euromaxx city: A Visit to Oxford, England

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Another popular keyboard instrument that began to be widely used in the 1970s is the synthesizer. It's often referred to casually as a synth.

 

Because the synth especially really grounds it into a modern sound.

Captions 54-55, Making Tracks: Stu Cullen and Samuel Blair's Musical Journey

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Probably the most important instrument in rock music, especially in heavy metal and punk rock music, is the electric guitar. Generally, a person who plays guitar is called a guitar player or a guitarist. In some bands, there is a rhythm guitarist, who mainly just plays chords, and a lead guitarist, who usually plays the guitar solos.

 

In the film, we see Queen's lead guitarist, Brian May.

Caption 29, Bohemian Rhapsody: Six Facts about the True Story

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On the bottom end of the harmonic spectrum, we find the bass guitar or electric bass, and the acoustic upright bass, also called a contrabass. A person who plays bass is called a bass player or a bassist.

 

My main instrument is bass guitar.

Caption 11, Bee and Flower; Interview

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Let's look now at the beat, an important element in most forms of pop music, with the drums at the forefront. A person who plays the drums is a drummer or a percussionist.

 

My dad's an incredible percussionist.

Caption 10, Bruno Mars: Electronic Press Kit

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I bet Garth Brooks would take you as a drummer next time he tours.

Caption 68, Ask Jimmy Carter; Interview with Phil Collins

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Of course, brass instruments have always played a role in pop music, but the most common horn in pop music is probably the saxophone. A person who plays the saxophone is a saxophone player or saxophonist. The trumpet is also a popular horn instrument, and it's played by a trumpet player.

 

Trumpets were all screaming, saxophones were blaring.

Captions 17-18, The Rolling Stones: Living In A Ghost Town

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Let's not neglect a major aspect of pop music that makes it possible to play so loudly: the amplifier. There are amplifiers made especially for specific instruments, such as a guitar amplifier, a bass amplifier, and a keyboard amplifier. Vocals, horns, and other acoustic instruments are usually amplified through a microphone, or just "mic" (pronounce like the name "Mike") for short. All of these instruments are usually amplified on larger stages through a PA system. This term is an abbreviation of "public address system," as they were originally developed for speaking to large crowds.

 

Try turning a quarter of an inch closer to the microphone, please.

Caption 5, Ask Jimmy Carter: Interview with Angelina Jolie

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the videos above relating to musical instruments. You can also search for the names of the instruments and find other videos. Find a tandem partner in your class and make up some sentences in English using these musical instrument words, then compare what you both came up with.

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La Navidad en inglés.

 

La navidad de los Estados Unidos, sus símbolos y sus productos ya forman parte de la cultura global. En muchos países la navidad made in America convive con las tradiciones locales.  La Navidad al estilo estadounidense suele ser el mayor producto económico para muchos países del mundo, ya que las ventas aumentan drásticamente en casi todos los sectores durante ese período. 

 

Con todo, la Navidad en Estados Unidos es al mismo tiempo una celebración que reúne a las familias y a los amigos en torno a los buenos deseos, la esperanza y la prosperidad. 

 

Christmas is a major holiday in the US and in other places, too.

Navidad es una festividad importante en los Estados Unidos y en otros lugares también. 

Subtítulo 3, Holidays and Seasons with Sigrid Sights and Scents at Christmastime

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Al otro lado del mar, Inglaterra también tiene un espíritu navideño que comienza en noviembre, cuando se encienden los primeros adornos en las ciudades y los niños escriben sus cartas a Papá Noel, también llamado Father Christmas en Inglaterra.  Los adultos, en cambio, tienen la tradición de escribir tarjetas de Navidad para enviarlas a la familia y los amigos. A los estadounidenses les gusta pasar la Nochebuena con sus familias, mientras que los británicos van a los pubs (bares) a beber y a compartir con los amigos. 

 

Hello, and what are you going to do on Christmas Day? We're gonna have a big log fire going

Hola, ¿y qué vas a hacer en Navidad? Vamos a tener una gran fogata

Subtítulos 23-24, Christmas in London People

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On the twelfth day after Christmas, we have to take down all the decorations and the tree, or else it's bad luck for the New Year.

En el doceavo día después de la Navidad, tenemos que quitar todas las decoraciones del árbol, si no es mala suerte para el Año Nuevo.

Subtítulos 47-48, Christmas Traditions in the UK

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Mientras que en Europa es habitual celebrar la Nochebuena, en Australia está más aceptado reunirse el día de Navidad (25 de diciembre).  Todas las tradiciones navideñas, todos los mitos y leyendas de la Navidad y todos los recuerdos navideños se construyen en torno al frío, pero Diciembre en Australia es verano así que hablamos de una Navidad calurosa. 

 

La Navidad se ha convertido en una fiesta internacional asociada con la renovación de propósitos de vida; días para compartir con la familia y los amigos. 

 

Merry Christmas!

¡Feliz Navidad!

Subtítulo 5, Dare Jessie J Christmas Special

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Aprendizaje adicional 

 

Inventa algunas frases sobre cosas que deseas a partir frases como  "I wish you...." o “we wish you”.... Busca más ejemplos de uso en Yabla Inglés para conocer mejor los diferentes contextos en los que se utiliza la frase.

 
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Classical Music Instruments in English

In last month's October edition of the Yabla English Lesson, we discussed the Performing Arts, one of which is music. Let's take a look today at the English names of some of the most common musical instruments used in classical music.

The piano is one of the main instruments in western musical traditions, and many musicians who specialize in other instruments and singing are often required to learn some basic piano skills. This is because of the piano's large range, from deep bass to high treble, which allows it to cover all of the ranges used by orchestral instruments. The piano is also important for musical composition, and many works for orchestra have been composed using the piano. A person who plays the piano is called a pianist or a piano player.

 

Well, when I write songs, I sometimes will write it on a piano.

Caption 27, Bee and Flower: Interview

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Warren Beatty's a good pianist.

Caption 71, Chevy Chase: talks about his acting life

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The violin also has another common name in English: the fiddle. This term is usually more casual and used especially in country, folk, and bluegrass music. A person who plays the violin is called a violinist or a fiddler.

 

Good. Did you mind if I play the violin? -No, go right ahead.

Caption 10, Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the Cunningham Heritage

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So, I picked up an instrument that was called the fiddle.

Caption 17, Sigrid: An American in Italy

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Of the remaining bowed string instruments, the viola is played by a viola player. The cello, actually short for "violoncello," is played by a cellist. The double bass—also called the upright bass or acoustic bass—is the deepest of the string instruments. It's played by a bassist, or double bass player, upright bass player, etc.

 

I'm Jasmine Beams. I'm from Milwaukee and I play viola.

Caption 9, Making Tracks: Dewayne Everettsmith & Jasmine Beams musical journey

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I grew up playing the cello.

Caption 10, Justin James: Booking Submission Video

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And did you take bass lessons when you were young?

Caption 12, Bee and Flower: Interview

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The highest of the woodwind reed instruments are the clarinet and the oboe. The clarinet is played by a clarinetist and the oboe by an oboist, although "clarinet player" and "oboe player" are fine too. The deepest is the bassoon, played by a bassoonist, or bassoon player.

 

I play the clarinet. -I play the bassoon.

Caption 8, Making Tracks: A musical journey inspired by Australia

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I played the oboe in middle school band.

Caption 85, Jennifer Lawrence & Chris Pratt: Answer the Web's Most Searched Questions

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There are also several non-reed woodwind instruments such as the flute and the recorder. A flute player is called a flutist (or flautist), and a recorder player is called just that.

 

When I was a girl, I studied flute like many girls,

Caption 36, Sigrid: An American in Italy

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And so I started playing recorder.

Caption 44, Sigrid: An American in Italy

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Of the brass instruments, the most commonly used are the trumpet and the French horn. The players of these instruments are a trumpeter (or trumpet player) and a French horn player. In the lower registers there's also the tuba, played by a tuba player.

 

Oh, yes, yes, practice trumpet every day.

Caption 23, They Might Be Giants: The Seven Days Of The Week

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Lastly, the main percussion instruments used are the marimba, the snare drum, and the timpani. The person in the orchestra playing these instruments is called a percussionist.

 

We know where the certain snare-hits are.

Caption 27, OK Go - Needing/Getting: Behind The Scenes

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the videos above relating to musical instruments. You can also search for the names of the instruments and find other videos. Find a tandem partner in your class and make up some sentences in English using these musical instrument words, then compare what you both came up with. In next month's lesson, we'll talk about the different kinds of musical instruments used in pop music!

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La jerga de las redes sociales en inglés. Parte 2.

 

En una famosa charla TED del 2013  el lingüista John McWhorter explica que, a pesar de las críticas, los mensajes de texto y sus derivados no son plagas modernas contra el lenguaje. 

 

Según McWhorter, escribir mensajes de texto ha llegado a convertirse en lo que él llama fingered speech (habla con los dedos). Por tanto, al igual que no nos preocupamos por las mayúsculas y la puntuación cuando hablamos en persona, los mensajes de texto también son una forma de lenguaje hablado con una composición muy informal, con sus propias reglas, estructura y vocabulario.

 

Entonces, además del inmenso número de acrónimos, de las abreviaturas y de los emojis, los verbos en inglés ocupan un lugar importante en la jerga de las redes sociales. Basta pensar que  se utilizan a diario al menos 10 palabras inglesas adaptadas a cada idioma:  googlear es el equivalente del verbo to google y lo mismo sucede con tag, link, post, chat, tweet, whatsapp, screenshot, instagram, entre otras.

 

So I start googling it, and I'm like, "Honey, this looks like a bungee jump."

Entonces comienzo a buscarlo en Google, y digo como: "Cariño, esto se parece a un salto de benji".

Subtítulos 20-21, The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon Kaley Cuoco Felt Like a Bachelor Contestant

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What's the one habit you wish he'd give up? Let's see. -McDonald's. -The tweeting.

¿Cuál es el hábito que deseas que él dejara? Veamos. -McDonald's. -El tuiteo.

Subtítulos 40-41, Michelle Obama and Melania Trump Talk Raising Children In White House

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Al mismo tiempo, conviene  un término clave en las redes sociales: el hashtag. Un hashtag es una palabra clave o una frase utilizada para describir un tema o un tópico, que va inmediatamente precedida por el signo numeral (#). Los hashtags pueden ayudarte a encontrar temas de interés. Por ejemplo, "Yabla" podría ser el hashtag #Yabla, y también #Yablaingles. Uno es un nombre, un concepto, y el otro es una búsqueda más específica a partir de aquel. 

 

 

the three Ps, right? Easy. [only flush Pee, Paper, and Poo. hashtag three Ps]

Las tres Ps, ¿correcto? Fácil. [Solo descarga pipí, papel y popó. Numeral tres Ps]

Subtítulo 19, TEDxBristol Why Plastic Pollution is Personal | Natalie Fee - Part 4

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Las redes sociales desempeñan un papel indispensable en el fomento del aprendizaje de una segunda lengua al proporcionar una amplia gama de materiales auténticos, tal  como lo son los videos de la biblioteca de Yabla. Los idiomas son fenómenos humanos, y como tales, dinámicos, cambiantes y contextuales. Como el mismo  McWhorter ha escrito: “...todas las lenguas están y han estado siempre en un estado de transformación continua, todo lo que vemos en una lengua hoy es el resultado del cambio".

 

Facebook and Twitter are social media.

Facebook y Twitter son redes sociales.

Subtítulo 52, The Alphabet the Letter C

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Aprendizaje adicional. 

Ve a Yabla inglés y mira los vídeos anteriores relacionados con las redes sociales que actualmente están de moda. Of course! Para mantenerte al día sobre nuestras novedades y ventajas, Yabla también está en las redes sociales. Búscanos en Twitter y en Instagram:  haz click aquí Instagram Yabla inglés

 

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The Literary and Performing Arts

Last month we started learning about different kinds of Visual Art: architecture, ceramics, conceptual art, drawing, painting, and sculpture. Let's continue today with the Literary Arts and the Performing Arts.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines literature as "writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest." This does not usually include news journalism or technical writing, but usually includes poetry, drama, and fiction and non-fiction prose. A person who creates literature is usually called an author, a dramatist or playwright, a poet, or simply a writer.

 

By the year 2050, the whole literature of the past will have gone.

Captions 1-2, George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four: BBC TV Movie

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The author Dave Eggers wanted to have a location that was accessible from the streets.

Captions 14-15, Brooklyn Superhero Supply Co.: Learn about this fun shop in Brooklyn, NY!

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The next category of types of art is the Performing Arts. Merriam-Webster defines this as "types of art (such as music, dance, or drama) that are performed for an audience." 

 

Dance as an art form, simply defined as "the art of dancing," is usually referring to contemporary dance and ballet, but may include figure skating, synchronized swimming, and some forms of gymnastics. A person who designs a dance performance is called a choreographer.

 

The inspiring story of a boy's struggle against the odds to become a ballet star.

Captions 20-21, Visit London: Top 10 London Musicals

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I came to America to become a professional dancer.

Caption 3, Another 7.4 Earthquake: Hits Japan

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Music is described by Merriam-Webster as "the art or skill of creating or performing music," although Wikipedia describes it more interestingly as "an art form whose medium is sound and silence, occurring in time." A person who performs music is a musician (or named after the instrument they play, such as a pianist, violinist, or guitarist). A person who writes music is called a composer or songwriter

 

So you write music as well, as in literally "write music?"

Captions 36-37, Bee and Flower: Interview

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This is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He was an Austrian musician and composer.

Captions 9-10, English Grammar in Use: Past Simple

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The last form of the performing arts is theater, defined by Merriam-Webster as "dramatic representation as an art or profession." Clearly, this extends beyond works performed in theaters to all forms of acting, which may also include any of the other performing arts of dance and music. Although theater and filmmaking encompass many kinds of work, the main performing artist is called an actor or actress, though it is usually best to refer to all genders of such performing artists simply as actors.

 

You're a repertory theater actor, you're expected to do everything.

Caption 14, Ask Jimmy Carter: Interview with Richard Gere

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the videos above relating to art forms and professions. Find a tandem partner in your class and make up some sentences in English using these art words, then compare what you both came up with.

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La jerga de las redes sociales en inglés. Parte 1.

 

Cuando se observan las conversaciones en las redes sociales, es posible que se encuentren con un montón de jerga o acrónimos que les cuesta entender. Son palabras con significado original, por así decirlo, pero que se emplean con otras finalidades. Cabe destacar que el uso de estas palabras y siglas está estandarizado en inglés, cuya personalidad de “idioma universal” se ha fortalecido a raíz de la masificación de internet. 

 

Entonces, veamos las tres primeras: 

 

CEO

Es un acrónimo de chief executive officer, la persona con el cargo más importante en una empresa. Cuando alguien en las redes sociales dice o escribe que es el CEO, quiere decir que la persona en cuestión es considerada la mejor en lo que hace. A veces se utiliza de forma irónica, pero otras veces se dice en serio. 

 

Extra 

Si alguien te llama extra, quiere decir que estás siendo exagerado. Las personas con un comportamiento dramático suelen llamarse extra. A menudo se utiliza con el verbo ser, para referirse a un estado de ánimo actual: Laura is so extra!

 

Fire o Lit

Si algo se considera fire (fuego) significa que algo es muy bueno. También se puede utilizar la palabra lit (encendido) para decir que algo es genial. A veces el uso del sticker (adhesivo) de llamas ardiendo puede sustituir a estas palabras.

 

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Aprendizaje adicional 

 

Para finalizar esta parte, te sugerimos ver tres videos de nuestra biblioteca de Yabla en los que se hace mención  de las redes sociales y su presencia en nuestra cotidianidad. 

 

A... a guy that you were interacting... -There was a guy that I instagrammed

Un... un chico con el cual interactuabas... -Hubo un chico al que puse en Instagram 

Caption 34, The Ellen Show Meghan Trainor's Exclusive Post-Surgery Interview

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Instagram, as I'm sure you guys know, is, like, where it's at these days.

Instagram, estoy segura que ustedes saben, cómo está la cosa estos días.

Caption 71, On Deck with Lucy Fashion Blogger Ava Improta

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Show or tell us your story on facebook, instagram,

Muéstranos o cuéntanos tu historia en facebook, Instagram.

Caption 21, Rozalia Project Livin' on the Ledge

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 ¡Yabla es sencillamente fire!

¡Diviértete y aprende inglés con Yabla!
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The Visual Arts

The arts are basically divided into three different categories: the Visual Arts, the Literary Arts, and the Performing Arts. Of course, there are art forms that combine the different categories—as well as art that is very difficult to categorize at all—but let's stick to the basics!

 

Today we'll focus on just the Visual Arts. The first type of art in this category is architecture, which the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines as "the art or practice of designing and building structures, and especially habitable ones." The professional title of a person who creates architecture is an architect.

 

 

California's central coast is a gorgeous stretch dotted with Spanish architecture.

Captions 2-3, Travel + Leisure: Weekend Getaway, Santa Barbara

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The next type of art in the visual arts is ceramics, defined by Merriam-Webster as "the art or process of making ceramic articles."  Works of art made of ceramic are also called pottery. You call a person who makes ceramics a ceramicist or a studio potter.

 

 

The most popular pieces, I would say, are the ceramic pieces.

Caption 17, New York City: Little Shop of Crafts

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The next type of art in the visual arts category is drawing, which the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines as "the art or technique of representing an object or outlining a figure, plan, or sketch by means of lines". 

 

 

So it's kind of a messy drawing, but it really helps to start to think of ideas.

Caption 27, Creative Space: What does an Interior Designer Do?

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A person who draws might be called a "drawer," but this is usually a person (such as a draftsman) who makes plans and sketches of machinery or structures, or a person who "draws up" or writes legal documents. Most visual artists use drawing as part of their skill set, if not as a finished product, then as a way to sketch out ideas.

 

Now we come to painting, a field practiced by painters, which is probably the traditional art form that most people think of when they think about art. It's simply defined in the dictionary as "the art or occupation of painting."

 

 

When I do an oil painting, it takes me a week or a month.

Captions 15-16, Creative Space: An Artist's Studio

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Next comes photography, practiced by photographers, which has many aspects that are not generally considered "high art," such as photojournalism for the news and commercial photography for advertising. Merriam-Webster defines it as "the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface (such as film or an optical sensor)."

 

 

This rule applies to film-making, photography...

Caption 2, Filmmaking & Photography: The Rule of Thirds | What Is It?

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The next type of visual art is sculpture, a field practiced by sculptors, and defined by Merriam-Webster as "the action or art of processing (as by carving, modeling, or welding) plastic or hard materials into works of art."

 

 

She prays to be sculpted by the sculptor.

Caption 4, Alessia Cara: Scars To Your Beautiful

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The last form of visual arts is conceptual art, which Merriam Webster defines as "an art form in which the artist's intent is to convey a concept rather than to create an art object." A person who practices this art form is a conceptual artist. In the United Kingdom, conceptual art has come to mean any contemporary art that does not use the traditional skills of painting or sculpture. Since conceptual art may take the form of an installation, or a form that is not easily sold (in the way an object like a painting or sculpture can be sold), most conceptual artists live from art grants and other forms of financial support.

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the videos above relating to art forms and professions. Find a tandem partner in your class and make up some sentences in English using these art words, then compare what you both came up with.

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Cuándo usar good y cuándo usar well. Parte 2.

 

Este tema es lo que llaman algunos un prescriptivist bugbear, o sea, una pesadilla prescriptivista. Un prescriptivista según el diccionario de Cambridge es aquel que “cree que hay formas correctas e incorrectas de usar el lenguaje y que los libros sobre el lenguaje deben dar reglas a seguir, en lugar de describir cómo se usa realmente el lenguaje” 

 

Entonces, aun cuando hoy en día palabras como well y good se usan muchas veces como sinónimos, vale la pena dar un repaso a la regla que exige diferenciarlos, ya que la misma se cumple con varios verbos importantes. 

 

Para los linking verbs (en español, verbos copulativos) tales como to be (ser o estar), to feel (sentir/sentirse), to grow (crecer), to look (parecer, lucir) y algunos otros, dice la regla que no debemos utilizar adverbios (como well) para modificarlos. En cambio, debemos utilizar adjetivos (como good) que siempre describen lo que sucede a las personas, y vale repetir, las personas son sustantivos los cuales funcionan con adjetivos. 

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En el caso del verbo to be, éste indica un estado del ser, en pocas palabras, no es un verbo de acción. Entonces, se debería decir  I am good (estoy bien) y no I am well, o  I feel happy (me siento feliz) y no I feel well.

 

How are you doing? -I'm good, how are you?

¿Cómo está? -Estoy bien, ¿y usted?

Subtítulo  83, The Late Late Show with James Corden Audience Attempts To Answer Simple Trivia For Cash - Part 1

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Responder al saludo general: How are you doing? con I'm well es gramaticalmente incorrecto (se quiso decir I'm doing well) o se está respondiendo a una pregunta diferente: how are you doing? I'm concerned about your health (¿Cómo te va? Me preocupa tu salud). 

 

Love you all and um... hope you're doing well.

Los amo a todos y eh... espero que estén bien

Subtítulo 79, An apartment in Japan

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También existe una situación especial, concretamente al hablar de la salud, en la que well y good tienen matices diferentes, pero ambos pueden utilizarse como adjetivos. I am well  (estoy sano) o I am good (puede significar sano, y también "no malo", hábil en algo, etc.)

 

Al final, es un ejemplo de cómo un uso gramatical impropio ha encontrado amplia difusión entre los hablantes nativos. Los idiomas son dinámicos y van cambiando con el tiempo, pero siempre vale la pena conocer la regla.

 

 

Aprendizaje adicional 

 

Entender la diferencia entre los adverbios y los adjetivos cuando se utilizan con verbos copulativos es útil para las personas que aprenden inglés porque ayuda a expresarse con mayor precisión. Haz una lista de adverbios y adjetivos en inglés y combinalos con verbos copulativos. 

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Fall, Autumn, and Indian Summer

The weather where you live may be different, but with cooler temperatures and rains, summer is already showing signs of being over. Summer officially ends on August 31st, so let's talk today about the season that comes after summer. 

 

The most common American English name for the season after summer is fall. The word possibly came from Old English or Old Norse into British English. By the 20th century, it had fallen into disuse in Britain. 

 

The fall is my favorite season in New York.

Caption 10, Caralie and Annie: Get to Know Each Other

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Spring is long gone, and summer's over, and we're ready for fall.

Captions 36-37, Food Talk with Sigrid: Simple Summer Vegetables

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Third, we have fall, or you could say autumn, when the leaves turn golden.

Captions 21-22, Lydia Explains: Weekdays, Seasons and Months

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The other English word for this season, as you can see in the last caption above, is autumn. This is the standard British English word for the season. It's also common in American English, though a bit more formal than "fall."

 

The Changing of the Guard happens throughout autumn and winter,

Caption 27, In London with Lauren: Buckingham Palace

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It's the end of October, so we are in the middle of autumn.

Captions 4-5, Sigrid: Pumpkin Season

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Meanwhile, autumn has painted its colors on the Alps.

Caption 21, The Last Paradises: Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The last caption does not mean that the season is literally taking up a brush to paint. It's metaphorically describing how in autumn, the green leaves of the trees change color to orange and gold!

 

Some years we get lucky and have a few weeks in fall (or autumn) when it's warm and sunny. This is commonly called Indian summer in English. Nobody knows where this phrase really came from, but other languages also have a name for this phenomenon. In many European languages, it is called "old woman's summer," and in some South American countries, it is called "little summer."

 

You're like an Indian summer in the middle of winter

Caption 27, Katy Perry - Thinking Of You: Behind The Scenes

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch the Lydia Explains video to learn more about seasons. You can also find more videos by searching for "autumn" and "fall."

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Cuándo usar good y cuándo usar well. Parte 1.

Para un hablante nativo del inglés, la elección entre estas dos palabras debería ser automática y guiada por el instinto, aunque no es raro escuchar que tanto ingleses como americanos se pueden confundir.

 

Por su parte, para un estudiante de inglés de habla hispana, podría resultar útil pensar brevemente la función que desempeñan las palabras good y well en la frase. Ambas tienen el significado español de “bien” o “bueno” según el caso.


Aclaremos esto con unos ejemplos.

 

Cuando necesitamos un adverbio, es decir, una palabra que modifique al verbo, usamos well

 

Make sure you mix all the ingredients well.

Asegúrate de mezclar bien todos los ingredientes.

Subtítulo 18, Michele from Down Under Banana Bread - Part 2

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En este caso no se trata solo de mix (mezclar), sino de mix well (mezclar bien), lo cual es una  indicación del tipo de acción que se necesita; de cómo se debe ejecutar dicha acción. 

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Cuando se trata de un adjetivo, se utiliza good. Básicamente, es adecuado para describir a alguien o algo; para definir un nombre, sustantivo o pronombre con una característica positiva,

 

This is a good thing and keeps the Earth warm enough for life to exist.

Esto es algo bueno y mantiene a la Tierra lo suficientemente tibia para que exista la vida.

Subtítulo 88, Chemistry for All | FuseSchool What Is The Natural Greenhouse Effect?

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Esta diferencia se hace evidente en otras frases. En inglés se dice que una hamburguesa está good y no well. Y solo se puede cantar well, no good

 

 

That's a good burger!

¡Esa es una buena hamburguesa!

Subtítulo 20, Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives Burger Bar - Part 1

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Aprendizaje adicional

 

Aunque hoy en día, good y well son igualmente aceptables e intercambiables en el habla cotidiana, en los ambientes académicos y laborales tienden a ser más exigentes con la preservación de esas reglas. Busca en Yabla videos en los que aparezcan estas palabras y trata de identificar qué función están cumpliendo en cada or

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Summer Sports and Gerunds

There are a lot of sports that are best enjoyed under a summer sun. Many names of sports are gerunds, which means the noun came from the verb, usually ending in "-ing." So you have the sport "surfing," and to make a verb for it to describe participating in the sport, you add the word "go": you "go surfing."
 

 

With some sports, the noun does not end in "ing," such as the sport golf. In this case, you can "play golf" or "go golfing." With some sports, such as tennis, you can "play tennis." But it's incorrect to say you "go tennising."

 

Let's take a look at summer sports today and figure out afterwards which of those have noun gerunds, and whether the noun gerunds carry over into the related verb or not.

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When you throw a frisbee, part of your spirit flies with it.

Caption 6, Movie Trailers: The Invisible String

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I found myself traveling around the world windsurfing.

Caption 12, Justin James: Booking Submission Video

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I'm not a scuba diving instructor yet.

Caption 1, Job interviews: Mr. Alan Hint monologue

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Caveman Skatetech delivers a very armchair appreciation to the sport of skateboarding.

Captions 1-3, Caveman Skatetech: Desert Vol 1

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It is also a popular recreational area for boating and other water sports.

Caption 36, The Last Paradises: America's National Parks

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If I'm in a kayak or a canoe, I have to be careful because if I move too much, then I can tip over.

Captions 53-55, Sigrid explains: The Tipping Point

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This effect is very important in sports like tennis, soccer, and golf.

Caption 30, Science: Surprising Applications of the Magnus Effect

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Sport name           Non-gerund verb        Gerund verb
Boating                   (none)                          Go boating, canoeing, kayaking
Diving                     (none)                          Go diving, scuba diving
Fishing                    (none)                         Go fishing
Frisbee                    Play frisbee                 (none)
Golf                         Play golf                      Go golfing
Skateboarding        (none)                          Go skateboarding
Snorkeling              (none)                          Go snorkeling
Surfing                    (none)                          Go surfing, windsurfing, kitesurfings
Soccer                    Play soccer                  (none)
Tennis                     Play tennis                   (none)

 

Note too that with some sports, you can use a non-gerund verb to describe playing the sport: "I golf badly, I dive well, I fish very well, I skateboard like a pro, I can snorkel, and I can surf." But other sports require you to have a helping verb: "I play frisbee, soccer, and tennis." 

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla English and watch some of the videos above for more references to summer sports.

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To borrow y to lend: prestar

El verbo español prestar equivale a los verbos ingleses to lend to borrow.

Tienes que pensar que "lend" es sinónimo de 'dar prestado', y que 'borrow' es sinónimo de 'tomar prestado'.

 

En inglés, el verbo to borrow significa tomar o utilizar algo que pertenece a otra persona durante un corto periodo de tiempo. El verbo to lend es dar algo a una persona durante un corto periodo de tiempo. Los hablantes de español suelen confundir estas dos palabras

 

En el siguiente ejemplo, Valentino presta la ropa y Sharon Stone la toma prestada. Al final, ella tiene que devolverlos.

 

So Valentino, the designer, lends me clothes to wear for appearances.

Así que Valentino, el diseñador, me presta ropa para usarla para [mis] apariciones.

Subtítulo 64, Ask Jimmy Carter Another interview with Sharon Stone

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La frase  lend a hand  (dar una mano) significa ayudar.

 

I would not lend a hand

Yo no daría una mano

Subtítulo 5, Phil Collins In The Air Tonight

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En la siguiente frase, Richard Wiseman le dice que utilice el dinero de su amigo para gastarle una broma.

 

Borrow a note from a friend. Ask them to place their hands palm down

Pida prestado un billete a un amigo. Pídales que pongan su mano con la palma hacia abajo

Subtítulo 49, Richard Wiseman 10 Bets You Will Always Win

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Así que ahora ya sabes que decir  "Peter  borrowed me ten dollars"  no es correcto. Tienes que decir o bien " Peter lent me ten dollars"  o  "I borrowed ten dollars from Peter." Nuestra Annette O´Neil del equipo de Yabla ha producido este video sobre los verbos to borrow y to lend. Te invitamos a verlo: English with Annette O'Neil - Formally and Informally Asking for Help - Part 1 of 3

 

Aprendizaje adicional

 

Los verbos to borrow y pedir to lend forman parte de las palabras que no podemos traducir literalmente en español. Presta atención los videos de  Yabla inglés en los cuales aparezcan estas palabras y elabora con ellas oraciones cotidianas que se te ocurran. 

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Flowers in Springtime

Spring and summer are the times of year that most flowers bloom in the Western Hemisphere. Let's take a look today at some of the more common types of flowers you'll come across in English. 

 

This incredible variety of shades of purple lupines are springing up everywhere.

Captions 25-26, New Zealand: 100% Pure New Zealand, Home of Middle-earth

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The Lupine (often spelled "Lupin" in British English), with its beautiful purple flowers, has become a problem in New Zealand, because it is not a native plant and has spread rapidly throughout the country.

 

If you come in June, you can see the roses.

Caption 11, Jessica: Brooklyn Sites

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The rose has been linked since ancient times to love, so it's the standard flower for people in love to give each other as a present.

 

This brief, rich time is crowned by the blooming of the alpine rose.

Caption 10, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The alpine rose is a kind of rose that is found in the mountains of central and southern Europe.

 

Anticipating the second her ears would open like lotuses...

Caption 15, White House Poetry Jam: Joshua Bennett

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The lotus flower is usually pink in Asia, and yellow in North America. It is considered a sacred plant in some eastern religions like Hinduism and Buddhism.

 

And who can believe that a kind of rhododendron is growing in the Alps as well?

Caption 12, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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There are over a thousand kinds of rhododendrons. It's the national flower of Nepal.

 

There are Easter lilies and other flowers everywhere.

Caption 67, Holidays and Seasons with Sigrid: Easter

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The Easter lily is found most often in Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. In Ireland, a badge shaped like an Easter lily is worn during the Easter holidays in remembrance of people who died fighting for Irish independence.

 

Beside the red carpets shines the deep blue gentian.

Caption 13, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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There are many different kinds of gentian, which usually have blue flowers. Some kinds are used medicinally or as a food or drink flavoring. 

 

Dream if you can a courtyard, an ocean of violets in bloom.

Captions 4-5, Prince. When Doves Cry

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Violets are often—but not always—a shade of purple that is also called violet, but there are also blue varieties. People sometimes invent rhymes that start with the line "Roses are red, violets are blue..." 

 

As did the queen of the Alps, the edelweiss.

Caption 18, The Last Paradises: The Alps, Realm of the Golden Eagle

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The edelweiss is usually found in the mountains of Europe. 

 

So much for them daisy chains.

Caption 37, Diane Birch: Valentino

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"Daisy" is a common name for several different kinds of flowers, which if strung together in a garland, are called "daisy chains." But the term "daisy chain" is also used as a technical term for connecting things, such as computers, ropes for climbing, and even a kind of fishing lure!

 

Further Learning
Find out more about different kinds of flowers on English Wikipedia or Simple English Wikipedia. You can start by looking up some flowers from this list: daffodil, dahlia, hibiscus, jasmine, marigold, morning glory, pansy, petunia, tulip, sunflower, and lavender.

You can also go to Yabla English and find more videos that use the word "flower" or "flowers" to see the different ways it is used by native English speakers. 

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All about "run"

Let's take a look today at different idioms, or slang expressions, that are based on the verb "to run" and its noun version, "run." The primary meaning of "to run" is, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, "to go faster than a walk; specifically, to go steadily by springing steps so that both feet leave the ground for an instant in each step." But there are a lot of other uses for this handy word whose meanings are meant as a figure of speech.

 

It's no secret that the both of us are running out of time

Caption 30, Adele Hello

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It just was a movie that didn't end with all the pizzazz that it should have because they ran out of money by the end.

Captions 70-71,  Ask Jimmy Carter: Interview with Robin Williams

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To "run out" of something means that you will soon have no more of something left. The phrase "to run out of gas" literally means that your car will soon have no more gas. But it is also a figure of speech meaning that you are getting tired and have very little energy left. "I wanted to finish my homework, but I ran out of gas."

 

In the long run, there's still time to change the road you're on.

Captions 1-2, Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven

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The phrase "in the long run" means over a long period of time, or eventually.

 

Yeah, she'd stay there till her blood ran cold.

Caption 22, Krayolas: La Conquistadora

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The saying "blood runs cold" means that somebody gets very frightened and fears for the worst.

 

And wonder runs in the family.

Caption 14, Selena Gomez: Ramona And Beezus

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If something "runs in the family," it suggests that some kind of illness is inherited in a family or some kind of behavior is seen in a family, as if it were inherited. 

 

I was running late and I decided in order to make up the time, that I was gonna speed my car.

Caption 30, Drivers Wanted: Pizza Delivery

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To be "running late" does not necessarily mean that you are literally running—although people do often run when they are late—but simply that you are late for something like an appointment. 

 

Further Learning
See if you can guess the meaning of the following figures of speech using "run." The answers are at the very bottom of the page, so you can check them afterwards.

 

A. to get off to a running start
B. to make a run for it
C. to run a fever or temperature
D. to run a tight ship
E. to run around in circles
F. to run into a stone wall
G. to run someone ragged

 

You can also go to Yabla English and find more videos that use run, running, ran etc. to see the different phrases used by native English speakers. 

 

 

 

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A. to start something, such a project, very quickly and efficiently
B. to escape something, whether literally by running or any other means
C. to have a fever or a high temperature
D. to supervise very effectively and efficiently
E. to be inefficient, wasting time
F. to be stopped from making progress
G. to exhaust somebody by giving them too many tasks

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Voz activa y voz pasiva

En la gramática inglesa, la "voz" describe la relación entre el verbo y el sujeto que habla. Si el sujeto de la frase realiza la acción, el verbo está en voz activa. Si el sujeto no participa activamente en la acción descrita y la atención se centra en la propia acción, no en el sujeto, el verbo está en voz pasiva.

 

Es importante que cuando escribas en inglés distingas entre la voz activa y la pasiva. Si quieres que el foco de atención esté en el sujeto, el o los que ejecutan la acción, utiliza la voz activa. Si quieres que el énfasis esté en la acción en sí, y no en quien hace la acción, utiliza la voz pasiva.

 

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Aquí tienes dos ejemplos de la voz activa tomados de Yabla Inglés: 

 

He created the mythology. He actually said in some of the letters he wrote...

Él creó la mitología. Él de hecho dijo en algunas de las cartas que escribió...

Subtítulo 54, New Zealand 100% Pure 'The Hobbit' cast talks about New Zealand

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Now, we'll have a demonstration from some of your instructors.

Ahora, tendremos una demostración de algunos de sus instructores.

Subtítulo 15, Karate Kids, USA The Little Dragons - Part 16

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En el primer ejemplo, la atención se centra en que el sujeto he  ha creado la mitología. Suele ser fácil hacer una frase en voz pasiva a partir de la activa utilizando el verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo original. En este caso, podemos escribirlo en voz pasiva así:

 

The mythology was created by him. 

La mitología fue creada por él. 

El enfoque aquí no es el hecho de que él la creó, sino el hecho de que fue creada. 

 

En el segundo ejemplo, podemos ponerlo en pasiva así: 

 

Now, there'll be a demonstration for us from some of your instructors. 

Ahora, habrá una demostración para nosotros de algunos de sus instructores. 

Ya no se enfatiza we  como los que serán el público de la demostración, sino que el hecho de la demostración es lo más importante.

 

Más información

Lee más sobre la voz activa y la voz pasiva aquí y encuentra ejemplos en Yabla Inglés para verlas utilizadas en un contexto real.

 

 

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Números cardinales y ordinales

En inglés, los números cardinales (por ejemplo, one, two o three) se refieren a la cantidad, mientras que los números ordinales (first, second or third) se refieren a la distribución.  Los números ordinales se utilizan en fechas y fracciones. Se emplean como adjetivos para describir la importancia, la posición en una lista y la ubicación en el tiempo.

 

Generalmente, los números ordinales se crean añadiendo -th al final del número cardinal. Sin embargo, hay excepciones para los números first (primero), second (segundo), third (tercero), fifth (quinto), eighth (octavo), ninth (noveno) y twelfth (décimo segundo). 

 

I've been nervous. I think you know it's my first video ever.

Me he puesto nervioso. Creo que sabes que es mi primer vídeo.

Subtítulo 31, Adele The Making of "Chasing Pavements"

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It is the world's sixth largest country by total area.

Es el sexto país más grande del mundo por superficie total.

Subtítulo 3, Soccer World Cup Australia

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On the twelfth day after Christmas, we have to take down all the decorations and the tree.

El decimosegundo día después de Navidad hay que quitar todos los adornos y el árbol.

Subtítulo 47, Christmas Traditions in the UK

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A partir del veinte, los números ordinales de los múltiplos de diez, por ejemplo: thirty o ninety, se crean sustituyendo la y por la ieth.

 

And we've got the one year celebration on the thirtieth of May.

Y tenemos la celebración de un año el treinta de mayo.

Subtítulo 30, FIFA U-20 World Cup New Zealand 2015 New Zealand getting the word out

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Esto puede parecer mucho para recordar. Sin embargo, en otros números superiores a veinte, sólo se escribe la última cifra como número ordinal:

 

English is the language of the twenty-first century. 

El inglés es el idioma del siglo ventiuno

Subtítulo 8, Strothoff International School Imagefilm

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Aprendizaje adicional

En español también tenemos números ordinales y cardinales con reglas muy similares. Es una ventaja, ¿No?. Entonces, ahora puedes memorizar con la ayuda de esta extensa lista de números y encuentra más ejemplos en Yabla Inglés.

 

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